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for loops are the most complex loops in PHP. They behave like their C counterparts. The syntax of a for loop is:

for (expr1; expr2; expr3) statement

The first expression (expr1) is evaluated (executed) once unconditionally at the beginning of the loop.

In the beginning of each iteration, expr2 is evaluated. If it evaluates to TRUE, the loop continues and the nested statement(s) are executed. If it evaluates to FALSE, the execution of the loop ends.

At the end of each iteration, expr3 is evaluated (executed).

Each of the expressions can be empty. expr2 being empty means the loop should be run indefinitely (PHP implicitly considers it as TRUE, like C). This may not be as useless as you might think, since often you'd want to end the loop using a conditional break statement instead of using the for truth expression.

Consider the following examples. All of them display numbers from 1 to 10:

/* example 1 */

for ($i = 1; $i <= 10; $i++) {
    print $i;

/* example 2 */

for ($i = 1; ; $i++) {
    if ($i > 10) {
    print $i;

/* example 3 */

$i = 1;
for (;;) {
    if ($i > 10) {
    print $i;

/* example 4 */

for ($i = 1; $i <= 10; print $i, $i++);

Of course, the first example appears to be the nicest one (or perhaps the fourth), but you may find that being able to use empty expressions in for loops comes in handy in many occasions.

PHP also supports the alternate "colon syntax" for for loops.

for (expr1; expr2; expr3): statement; ...; endfor;

Other languages have a foreach statement to traverse an array or hash. PHP 3 has no such construct; PHP 4 does (see foreach). In PHP 3, you can combine while with the list() and each() functions to achieve the same effect. See the documentation for these functions for an example.

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