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extract

(PHP 3>= 3.0.7, PHP 4 )

extract --  Import variables into the current symbol table from an array

Description

int extract ( array var_array [, int extract_type [, string prefix]])

This function is used to import variables from an array into the current symbol table. It takes an associative array var_array and treats keys as variable names and values as variable values. For each key/value pair it will create a variable in the current symbol table, subject to extract_type and prefix parameters.

Note: Beginning with version 4.0.5, this function returns the number of variables extracted.

Note: EXTR_IF_EXISTS and EXTR_PREFIX_IF_EXISTS was introduced in version 4.2.0.

Note: EXTR_REFS was introduced in version 4.3.0.

extract() checks each key to see whether it has a valid variable name. It also checks for collisions with existing variables in the symbol table. The way invalid/numeric keys and collisions are treated is determined by the extract_type. It can be one of the following values:

EXTR_OVERWRITE

If there is a collision, overwrite the existing variable.

EXTR_SKIP

If there is a collision, don't overwrite the existing variable.

EXTR_PREFIX_SAME

If there is a collision, prefix the variable name with prefix.

EXTR_PREFIX_ALL

Prefix all variable names with prefix. Beginning with PHP 4.0.5, this includes numeric variables as well.

EXTR_PREFIX_INVALID

Only prefix invalid/numeric variable names with prefix. This flag was added in PHP 4.0.5.

EXTR_IF_EXISTS

Only overwrite the variable if it already exists in the current symbol table, otherwise do nothing. This is useful for defining a list of valid variables and then extracting only those variables you have defined out of $_REQUEST, for example. This flag was added in PHP 4.2.0.

EXTR_PREFIX_IF_EXISTS

Only create prefixed variable names if the non-prefixed version of the same variable exists in the current symbol table. This flag was added in PHP 4.2.0.

EXTR_REFS

Extracts variables as references. This effectively means that the values of the imported variables are still referencing the values of the var_array parameter. You can use this flag on its own or combine it with any other flag by OR'ing the extract_type. This flag was added in PHP 4.3.0.

If extract_type is not specified, it is assumed to be EXTR_OVERWRITE.

Note that prefix is only required if extract_type is EXTR_PREFIX_SAME, EXTR_PREFIX_ALL, EXTR_PREFIX_INVALID or EXTR_PREFIX_IF_EXISTS. If the prefixed result is not a valid variable name, it is not imported into the symbol table.

extract() returns the number of variables successfully imported into the symbol table.

A possible use for extract() is to import into the symbol table variables contained in an associative array returned by wddx_deserialize().

Example 1. extract() example

<?php

/* Suppose that $var_array is an array returned from
   wddx_deserialize */

$size = "large";
$var_array = array("color" => "blue",
                   "size"  => "medium",
                   "shape" => "sphere");
extract($var_array, EXTR_PREFIX_SAME, "wddx");

print "$color, $size, $shape, $wddx_size\n";

 ?>

The above example will produce:

blue, large, sphere, medium

The $size wasn't overwritten, because we specified EXTR_PREFIX_SAME, which resulted in $wddx_size being created. If EXTR_SKIP was specified, then $wddx_size wouldn't even have been created. EXTR_OVERWRITE would have caused $size to have value "medium", and EXTR_PREFIX_ALL would result in new variables being named $wddx_color, $wddx_size, and $wddx_shape.

You must use an associative array, a numerically indexed array will not produce results unless you use EXTR_PREFIX_ALL or EXTR_PREFIX_INVALID.

See also compact().

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